Jdi na obsah Jdi na menu


23. 1. 2011

Mahaprabhu has himself explained this to Sanatana Goswami:

        Krsna is the nondual Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  Although He is one, He maintains different personal expansions and energies for His pastimes.  Krsna expands Himself in many forms.  Some of them are personal expansions, and some are separate expansions.  Thus He performs pastimes in both the spiritual and material worlds.  The spiritual worlds are the Vaikuntha plnaets, and the material universes are brahmandas, gigantic globes governed by Lord Brahma.   The living entites are divided into two categories.  Some are eternally liberated, and others are eternally conditioned.  Those who are eternally liberated are always awake to Krsna consciousness, and they render transcendental loving service at the feet of Lord Krsna.  They are to be considered eternal associates of Krsna, and they are eterally enjoying the transcendental bliss of serving Krsna.  Apart from the ever-liberated devotees, there are the conditioned souls who always turn away from the service of the Lord.  They are perpetually conditioned in this material world and are subjected to the material tribulations brought about by different bodily forms in hellish conditions.  Due to his being opposed to Krsna consciousness, the conditioned soul is punished by the witch of the external energy, maya.  He is thus ready to suffer the threefold miseris-miseris brough about the  body and mind, the inimical behaviour of other living entities and natural disturbances caused by the demigods.  In this way the conditioned  soul becomes the servant of lusty desires, and when these are not fulfilled, he becomes a servant of anger and continues to be kicked by  external energy, maya.  Wandering and wandering throughout the universe, he may by chance get the association of a devotee physician, whose instructions and hymns make the witch of external energy flee.  The conditioned soul thus gets into touch with the devotional service of Lord Krsna, and in this way he can approach nearer and nearer to the Lord.
                                          C.C.Madhya  22.7-15
        It is the living entity's constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krsna because he is the marginal energy of Krsna and a manifestation simultaneously one and different from the Lord,  like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. 
                                        C.C.Madhya 20.108-109
To Rupa Gosvami:

        In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8.400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe.  The length and breadth of the living entity is described as one ten- thousandth part of the tip of a hair. 1 This is the original subtle nature of the living entity.
                                           C.C.Madhya 19.138-139
To Sarvabhauma:

        The Lord is the master of the potencies, and the living entity is the servant of them.  That is the difference between the Lord and the living entity.  However, you declare that the Lord and the living entities are one and the same.  In Bhagavad gita the living entity is established as the marginal potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  Yet you say that the living entity is completely different from the Lord. 
                                    C.C.Madhya 9, 162-3
The meaning of these statements is that Krsna, who is endowed with inconceivable energies, by His will , through His cit sakti, enjoys in two ways--through his personal expansions or svamsa and through his separated parts, vibhinnamsas. He expands himself as the caturvyuha and innumerable  avataras as svamsa forms;  He expands himself as the sum of all jivas as His separated parts.   The expansion of his svamsa forms is the activity of the cit sakti.  All these forms are visnu tattva, endowed with all power.  All these parts obtain complete power from the complete Krsna.   Though one great candle lights up innumerable candles, it does not lose any power, and yet the innumerable candles have the same power as the original  candle.2 All these forms are supreme, and do not suffer the results of karma; yet though like Krsna they are of independent will, they are subordinate to Krsna's will.

Infinitesimal particles of the cit sakti, in the form of separated parts, are the jivas.3  They are also called the tatastha sakti.  The tatastha sakti lies between the  cit sakti and the maya sakti. Though the maya sakti is not intrinsic in the jiva, due to his minute nature and consequent weakness, the jiva becomes attracted to maya.  It is from Krsna's inconceivable power alone that such an energy as the jiva is manifest.  Its cause is but Krsna's independent will.   The separated parts, all the jivas, are liable to suffer the results of karma.4  As long as the jivas stay fixed in the service of Krsna by their choice, they are free of maya or karma, but when by misuse of their free will,  they desire to enjoy for themselves and they forget their inherent service to Krsna,  they become deluded  by maya and controlled by karma.  When they realize that service to Krsna is their inherent nature, they become free from the bondage of karma and the affliction of maya.5 Because their bondage exists before entry into the material universe, their bondage is called "anadi," without beginning, and they are called eternally conditioned.  Those who are not bound like this are called eternally liberated. 

From the above facts, one can see a great difference between the natures of the Lord and the jivas.  The Lord is the controller of maya  and the jiva is attracted to maya and finally become bound up.6  Considering that the jiva is but a part of the complete form of Krsna, one must conclude that the particle or jiva is a different entity from Krsna. Yet the jiva, being an energy of the Lord, must be considered as non-different as well. Therefore Mahaprabhu gave the jiva an identity of difference  and non-difference and taught the principle of acintya bhedabheda.  Giving the examples of the rays of the sun and sparks from the fire he concluded that the jivas are eternally different, but yet  integral parts of the Lord. 

It is not possible to conclude that the  jiva is the Supreme Brahman or God by occasional statements of the Vedas, such as "aham brahmasmi".  Krsna or Visnu tattva is the only Supreme Brahman.  Because the jiva is a type of spiritual or conscious entity he can be called brahman.  The brahman, Krsna's effulgence, expands as paramatma in the material universe  and as the impersonal, formless, imperceptible, unattainable, inconceivable brahman outside the universe.  As Krsna's inconceivable vibhinnamsas, the jivas take up a variety for forms, such as devas, humans, yaksas, raksasas, beasts, birds, insects, reptiles, and ghosts.    Among all the forms, however, that of the human is considered the best, for it is most suitable for practicing devotional service. But even in human form, the jivas suffer hellish existence or enjoy heavenly delights.  Forgetting Krsna, the jiva, under the control of maya, seeks to fulfill his desires.

The minute conscious particle, the jiva, is by nature the servant of Krsna, the complete conscious being.  Service to Krsna is the nature of the jiva.  Forgetting this eternal nature, the jiva remains in bondage. When the jiva remembers his eternal  nature he attains freedom.  The inherent power or sakti of the living, conscious entity, is also present in the tiny conscious jiva, but in minute degree.  Therefore the jiva is almost without power by his very nature.  But in the liberated state, the jiva gains the sakti from Krsna and to that degree becomes powerful.  Just by thinking himself a spiritual entity the jiva cannot obtain the power.  This type of liberation is called nirvana.  By identifying himself as the servant of Krsna, the jiva obtains power from Krsna and finally  attains eternal bliss.  Fear, the by- product of illusion, is removed completely.

The various forms that the conditioned jiva takes are but the result of individual actions.7 The qualities of the material world are not the constitution of the jiva.  If one believes that the jiva is actually a product of maya, then one is a mayavadi.  The jiva is in reality a pure spiritual entity, under the spiritual potency.  But because of the marginal nature of the jiva, the jiva has a tendency to become bound by maya.  But he  is only forgetting the inherent nature, service to Krsna;  the pure jiva's state, form and transformations are all spiritual.8   Being of infinitesimal nature, the jivas become bound by maya. First the subtle, mental body covers the pure form, and then, when the time comes to act in the world , the gross body  suitable to the action it deserves covers the subtle body. The subtle and gross forms are but abnormal conditions induced by maya upon the pure soul's form.  There is thus some similarity between the two forms.

Earth, water, fire, air, and ether make up the gross body.  Mind, intellect and false ego make up the subtle body9.  On removing these coverings, the jiva attains liberation from maya.  Then the jiva's spiritual form is revealed.  The liberated jiva performs his actions through the senses of the soul.  Eating, recreation,  sexual activities with women, excretory  functions,  sickness, injury, and suffering due to want, as found in the material world, do not exist in the spiritual body.  These activities affect only the gross body, but by thinking that he is the body, the jiva accepts all these activities  and experiences material pleasure and pain. 10
Though a person may be liberated, if he maintains pride in material knowledge or remains attached to negation of material existence, then he cannot attain a spiritual body suitable for service to Krsna in the spiritual world.11  Liberation achieved through devotional association gives rise to such a spiritual body.12  Liberation due to association with jnanis is only a pretense of liberation.  For the jiva, this is an unfortunate position.13 In this chapter the jiva's pure form, his conditioned form and form in liberation have been discussed.  What the jiva should  do and not do will be discussed elsewhere.
1 balagra sata bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca
bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantaya kalpyate    Svetasvatara Upanisad 5.9.
2 The light of one candle being communicated to other candles, although it burns separately in them, is the same in its quality.  I adore the Primeval Lord Govinda who exhibits Himself equally in the same mobile manner in his various manifestations. B.S.5.46
3 Among subtle things I am spirit soul, and of things that are difficult to conquer I am the mind. S.B.11.16.11
4 The bird who does not eat the fruits of the tree is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who by His omniscience perfectly understands His own position and that of the conditioned living entity, represented by the eating bird.  That living entity, on the other hand, does not understand himself or the Lord.  He is covered by ignorance and is thus called eternally conditioned, whereas the Personality of Godhead, being full of perfect knowledge, is eternally liberated.  S.B.11.11.7
5 Fear arises when a living entity misidentifies himself as the material body because of absorption in the external, illusory energy of the Lord.  When the living entity thus turns away from the Supreme Lord, he also forgets his own constitutional position as a  servant of the Lord.  This bewildering, fearful condition is effected by the potency for illusion, called maya.  Therefore, an intelligent person should engage unflinchingly in the unalloyed devotional service of the Lord, under the guidance of a bona fide spiritual master, whom he should accept as his worshipable deity and as his very life and soul.
6 My Lord, by Your unbroken transcendental glance You are the supreme witness of all stages of intellectual activities.  You are eternally liberated, Your existence is situated in pure goodness, and You are existent in the Supersoul without change.  You are the original Personality of Godhead, full with six opulences, and You are eternally the master of the three modes of material nature. Thus, You are always different from the ordinary living entities.  AS Lord Visnu, You maintain all the affairs of the entire universe, and yet You stand aloof and are the enjoyer of the results of all sacrifices.
7 The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions of fruitive work.  Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to another.  The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.   S.B.11.22.37
8 Having achieved this human form of life, which affords one the opportunity to realize Me, and being situated in My devotional service, one can achieve Me, the reservoir of all pleasure and the Supreme Soul of all existence, residing within the heart of every living being.  S.B.11.26.1
9 B.G.7.4-5
10 An unintelligent mind, failing to distinguish himself from material nature, thinks nature to be real.  By contact with it he becomes completely bewildered and enters the cycle of material existence. S.B.11.22.51

Just as one may imitate persons whom one sees dancing and singing, similarly the soul, although never the doer of material activities, becomes captivated by material intelligence and is thus forced to imitate its qualities.   S.B.11.22.53

The soul's material life, his experience of sense gratification, is actually false, O descendant of Dasarha, just like trees' appearance of quivering when the trees are reflected in agitated water, or like the earth's appearance of spinning due to one's spinning his eyes around, or like the world of a fantasy or dream.  For one who is meditating on sense gratification, material life, although lacking factual existence, does not go away, just as the unpleasant experiences of a dream do not.  S.B.11.22 54-56

11 I regret that during this lifetime you will not be able to see Me anymore.  Those who are incomplete in service and who are not completely free from all material taints can hardly see Me.  S.B.1.6.21
12 And so, O Brahmana Vyasadeva, in due course of time I, who was fully absorbed in thinking of Krsna and who therefore had no attachments, being completely freed from all material taints, met with death, as lightning and illumination occur simultaneously.  Having been awarded a transcendental body befitting an associate of the Personality of godhead, I quit the body made of five material elements, and thus all acquired fruitive results of work stopped.  S.B.1.6.27-28
13 O lotus-eyed Lord, although nondevotees who accept severe austerities and penance to achieve the highest position may think themselves liberated, their intelligence is impure. They fall down from their position of imagined superiority because they have no regard for Your lotus feet.  S.B.10.2.32